Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management
Anal cancer is a cancer which arises from the anus , the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract. Prevention includes avoiding risk factors and HPV vaccination. Symptoms of anal cancer can include pain or pressure in the anus or rectum, a change in bowel habits, a lump near the anus, rectal bleeding, itching or discharge. Bleeding may be severe. Most anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas epidermoid carcinomas , that arises near the squamocolumnar junction.
The anus is an organ that lies at the end of the digestive tract below the rectum. It consists of two sections: the anal canal and the anus or anal verge. The anal canal is a cm long structure that lies between the anal sphincter one of the muscles that controls bowel movements just below the rectum and the anal verge which represents the transition point between the digestive tract and the skin on the outside of the body.
Most anal cancers start in the squamous cells. Find out about squamous cell cancers and other types. Squamous cell cancers are the most common type of anal cancer. They are also called epidermoid cancers. There are 3 types of squamous cell cancer.