There are six main criteria for healthy sperm:. Sperm also need to have the right number of chromosomes for a successful pregnancy. A breakdown in any of these criteria can result in male-factor infertility. An estimated 15—20 percent of couples worldwide are affected by infertility.
What Is Sperm Motility and How Does It Affect Fertility?
What is Male Infertility? - Urology Care Foundation
The functional as opposed to inflammatory effects of gastrointestinal pathology are often neglected by clinicians. Helicobacter pylori infection may impair gastric function either due to the oedema associated with antral gastritis leading to gastric outlet obstruction or due to gastroparesis caused by release of inflammatory and immune mediators. Gastric outlet obstruction due to H pylori infection is usually associated with peptic ulceration and narrowing of the pylorus or duodenum and eradication therapy can be an effective treatment. However, the evidence for an association between H pylori infection and impaired gastric motor function is conflicting. As malignancy is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction, combination of CT scan and endoscopic ultrasound would help in establishing the aetiology.
Gene targeting was used to create mice lacking sperm-associated antigen 6 Spag6 , the murine orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, an axonemal protein containing eight armadillo repeats predicted to be important for flagellar motility and stability of the axoneme central apparatus. Spag6-deficient males surviving to maturity were infertile. Their sperm had marked motility defects and was morphologically abnormal with frequent loss of the sperm head and disorganization of flagellar structures, including loss of the central pair of microtubules and disorganization of the outer dense fibers and fibrous sheath.
Frapsauce, S. Grabar, M. Leruez-ville, O. Launay, P.